From realism to interfaces and rationality in evolutionary games

As I was preparing some reading assignments, I realized that I don’t have a single resource available that covers the main ideas of the interface theory of perception, objective versus subjective rationality, and their relationship to evolutionary game theory. I wanted to correct this oversight and use it as opportunity to comment on the philosophy of mind. In this post I will quickly introduce naive realism, critical realism, and the interface theory of perception and sketch how we can use evolutionary game theory to study them. The interface theory of perception will also give me an opportunity to touch on the difference between subjective and objective rationality. Unfortunately, I am trying to keep this entry short, so we will only skim the surface and I invite you to click links aggressively and follow the references papers if something catches your attention — this annotated list of links might be of particular interest for further exploration.
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Useful delusions, interface theory of perception, and religion

As you can guess from the name, evolutionary game theory (EGT) traces its roots to economics and evolutionary biology. Both of the progenitor fields assume it impossible, or unreasonably difficult, to observe the internal representations, beliefs, and preferences of the agents they model, and thus adopt a largely behaviorist view. My colleagues and I, however, are interested in looking at learning from the cognitive science tradition. In particular, we are interested in the interaction of evolution and learning. This interaction in of itself is not innovative, it has been a concern for biologists since Baldwin (1886, 1902), and Smead & Zollman (2009; Smead 2012) even brought the interaction into an EGT framework and showed that rational learning is not necessarily a ‘fixed-point of Darwinian evolution’. But all the previous work that I’ve encountered at this interface has made a simple implicit assumption, and I wanted to question it.

It is relatively clear that evolution acts objectively and without regard for individual agents’ subjective experience except in so far as that experience determines behavior. On the other hand, learning, from the cognitive sciences perspective at least, acts on the subjective experiences of the agent. There is an inherent tension here between the objective and subjective perspective that becomes most obvious in the social learning setting, but is still present for individual learners. Most previous work has sidestepped this issue by either not delving into the internal mechanism of how agents decide to act — something that is incompatible with the cognitive science perspective — or assuming that subjective representations are true to objective reality — something for which we have no a priori justification.

A couple of years ago, I decided to look at this question directly by developing the objective-subjective rationality model. Marcel and I fleshed out the model by adding a mechanism for simple Bayesian learning; this came with an extra perk of allowing us to adopt Masel’s (2007) approach to looking at quasi-magical thinking as an inferential bias. To round out the team with some cognitive science expertise, we asked Tom to join. A few days ago, after an unhurried pace and over 15 relevant blog posts, we released our first paper on the topic (Kaznatcheev, Montrey & Shultz, 2014) along with its MatLab code.
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Ethnocentrism, religion, and austerity: a science poster for the humanities

Artem Kaznatcheev and I presented a poster on May 4th at the University of British Columbia to a highly interdisciplinary conference on religion. The conference acronym is CERC, which translates as Cultural Evolution of Religion Research Consortium. Most of the 60-some attendees are religion scholars and social scientists from North American and European universities. Many are also participants in a large partnership grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC), spearheaded by Ted Slingerland, an East Asian scholar at UBC. Some preliminary conversations with attendees indicated considerable apprehension about how researchers from the humanities and sciences would get on. Many of us are familiar with collaborative difficulties even in our own narrow domains. Skepticism was fairly common.

As far as I know, our poster was the only computer simulation presented at the meeting. We titled it Agent-based modeling of the evolution of “religion”, with scare quotes around religion because of the superficial and off-hand way we treated it. Because we know from experience that simulations can be a tough sell even at a scientific psychology conference, we were curious about whether and how this poster would fly in this broader meeting.
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