Rationality, the Bayesian mind and their limits

Bayesianism is one of the more popular frameworks in cognitive science. Alongside other similar probalistic models of cognition, it is highly encouraged in the cognitive sciences (Chater, Tenenbaum, & Yuille, 2006). To summarize Bayesianism far too succinctly: it views the human mind as full of beliefs that we view as true with some subjective probability. We then act on these beliefs to maximize expected return (or maybe just satisfice) and update the beliefs according to Bayes’ law. For a better overview, I would recommend the foundations work of Tom Griffiths (in particular, see Griffiths & Yuille, 2008; Perfors et al., 2011).

This use of Bayes’ law has lead to a widespread association of Bayesianism with rationality, especially across the internet in places like LessWrong — Kat Soja has written a good overview of Bayesianism there. I’ve already written a number of posts about the dangers of fetishizing rationality and some approaches to addressing them; including bounded rationality, Baldwin effect, and interface theory. I some of these, I’ve touched on Bayesianism. I’ve also written about how to design Baysian agents for simulations in cognitive science and evolutionary game theory, and even connected it to quasi-magical thinking and Hofstadter’s superrationality for Kaznatcheev, Montrey & Shultz (2010; see also Masel, 2007).

But I haven’t written about Bayesianism itself.

In this post, I want to focus on some of the challenges faced by Bayesianism and the associated view of rationality. And maybe point to some approach to resolving them. This is based in part of three old questions from the Cognitive Sciences StackExhange: What are some of the drawbacks to probabilistic models of cognition?; What tasks does Bayesian decision-making model poorly?; and What are popular rationalist responses to Tversky & Shafir?

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