Phenotypic plasticity, learning, and evolution

MendelBaldwinLearning and evolution are eerily similar, yet different.

This tension fuels my interest in understanding how they interact. In the context of social learning, we can think of learning and evolution as different dynamics. For individual learning, however, it is harder to find a difference. On the one hand, this has led learning experts like Valiant (2009) to suggest that evolution is a subset of machine learning. On the other hand, due to its behaviorist roots, a lot of evolutionary thought simply ignored learning or did not treat it explicitly. To find interesting interactions between the two concepts we have to turn to ideas from before the modern synthesis — the Simpson-Baldwin effect (Baldwin 1886, 1902; Simpson, 1953):
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